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Types Of Anesthesia

Local Anesthesia (local infiltration block)

Definition: A medication (agent) is injected by the use of a syringe into the tissue surrounding the tooth or the area to be incised. As a result of local anesthesia, numbness occurs only around the area that is to be operated on.

Agents used for local anesthesia:

Xylocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine-Advantages is rapid onset of anesthesia with local vasoconstriction and freedom from local irritation, relatively free from allergic reactions. Epinephrine maximizes and prolongs the anesthesic effects at the injection site.

3% Carbocaine without epinephrine-Acts as quickly but duration of anesthesia is shorter. It is used when the effects of epinephrine are not needed or warranted. This is used for patients that have experienced reactions to epinephrine in previous procedures.

0.5% Marcaine-Onset of anesthesia may be somewhat slower than lidocaine, but the duration is longer and is used on more extensive surgical cases of the oral cavity,

General Anesthesia

Definition: Drug-induced total reversible lack of awareness rendering the patient to a state of analgesia (no pain), amnesia (loss of memory of procedure) and unconsciousness, characterized by the loss of protective reflexes and muscle tone.

Agents used for intravenous sedation/general anesthesia:

Valium/Versed - Given intravenously with sedative effects, reduces anxiety, and cause amnesia.

Propofol - Also given intravenously, used for its hypnotic effects, as well as for induction of anesthesia and maintenance.

Ketamine - Given intravenously for its induction of anesthesia and amnesia effects.

Fentanyl - Used for intravenous pain relief. Used for sedative effects as well as reduction in pain response.